The principle of a transformer is based on the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents. A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by means of electromagnetic induction.
The transformer consists of two coils, primary and secondary, wound around a common magnetic core. When an alternating current (AC) is passed through the primary coil, it creates an alternating magnetic field in the core. This magnetic field then induces a voltage in the secondary coil, which is proportional to the number of turns in the secondary coil.
The voltage induced in the secondary coil is determined by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary coil to the number of turns in the primary coil. If the secondary coil has more turns than the primary coil, the output voltage will be higher than the input voltage. If the secondary coil has fewer turns than the primary coil, the output voltage will be lower than the input voltage.
This principle is used in many electrical applications, such as power distribution systems, voltage regulation, and electronic circuits. Transformers are essential components in many electronic devices, such as power supplies, audio equipment, and telecommunications equipment.