Crop production and management – class 8

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All living organisms require food for survival and growth. The green plants can synthesize their food by using the process of photosynthesis. Man and other animals can’t perform photosynthesis to get food. Humans obtain food from plants as well as animals.

In other words, man grows different types of plants on a large scale to get a large amount of food grains like wheat and cereals and rears animals like cows and buffaloes to obtain milk; fish and hens are reared to get meat and eggs.

In this comprehensive article, we will study every aspect of crop production and management in detail.


When plants of the same kind are grown on a large scale to obtain food, they are called crops Different types of crops, such as cereals, vegetables, pulses, and fruits.

What is crops?
Illustration of crop, source: National Geographic Society

The climatic conditions in India are different from one region to another. Based on the season, they are classified as follows:

  • Kharif crops
  • Rabi crops

Kharif crops

The crops that are grown in the winter season are called kharif crops. The rainy season in India runs from June to September.

Examples: paddy, maize, soybean, groundnut, Cotton, etc.

Rabi crops

The crops that are grown in the winter are called rabi crops. The period of the winter season is October to March.

Examples: wheat, gram, pea, mustard, and linseed.

Agricultural practices

The activities that help produce crops in the fields are known as agricultural practices.

Basic practices for crop production

Various activities are performed at different stages of crop production, as given below:

  1. Preparation of soil
  2. Sowing
  3. Adding manure and fertilizers
  4. Irrigation
  5. Protecting from weeds
  6. Harvesting
  7. Storage

We will discuss agricultural practices in detail to understand how food is produced on large scales.

Preparation of soil

The preparation of soil is the first step before growing any crop. The top layer of the earth is soil. It consists of minerals, dead and decaying organic matter, and other living organisms that nourish the crops.

The soil is prepared for the sowing of seeds by:


Plowing, or tilling, is turning over and breaking up the soil in a field using a plow or similar equipment. This practice serves several purposes:

Plowing, source: Agriculture INDIA
  • It helps to loosen compacted soil, making it easier for plant roots to penetrate and access nutrients and water.
  • Plowing buries crop residues and weeds, helping to control pests and diseases.
  • It aerates the soil, improving its oxygen content and microbial activity.
  • Plowing can also incorporate organic matter or amendments into the soil, enhancing soil fertility.

Leveling is the process of ensuring that the field’s surface is even and flat. This is typically done after plowing and has several benefits:

  • It helps with efficient water distribution and prevents waterlogging in low-lying areas.
  • Leveling ensures uniform planting and even crop growth, making it easier for mechanical equipment to be used for subsequent operations like seeding and harvesting.
  • It aids in the efficient use of irrigation water, as it prevents water from pooling in one area while leaving other areas dry.

Manuring involves the application of organic or inorganic substances to the soil to provide essential nutrients for plant growth. Manures are organic materials like compost, animal dung, and crop residues, while inorganic fertilizers are chemical products containing specific nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The main purposes of manuring are as follows:

  • Providing essential nutrients to the crops, which can be deficient in the natural soil,
  • Enhancing soil fertility and improving the soil’s physical and chemical properties
  • Promoting healthy plant growth and higher crop yields
  • Manuring can also help increase the soil’s microbial activity, leading to better nutrient availability for plants.

Benefits of loosening soil:

  1. The loosened soil helps promote the growth of earthworms and microbes that are eco-friendly. and then further turn and loosen the soil and add humus to it.
  2. Loose soil allows the roots to penetrate deeply into the soil.  It is easily held to the ground.
  3. It also allows the roots to breathe easily, and the loosening of the soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top so plants can use the nutrients for their growth.

If soil is very dry, soil covert into large mud crumbs during plowing to break these crumbs we need a soil plank or we also called as ‘crumb crusher’

The plowed soil is quite loose; it is carried by strong winds or washed away by rainwater, so it is necessary to level the soil, which is done by pressing with a wooden leveler.


The process of scattering the seeds in the prepared soil is called sowing. Before sowing the seeds in the fields, it is necessary to ensure the seed you are selecting is of better quality.

Crop production and management class 8
Sowing the seeds, source: Housing
How do I select a good-quality seed?

All the selected which you are taken or purchase by someone, put into the bucket filled with water, after putting it into you will see some are floating and other are sinked at bottom.

Reason: Healthy seeds are heavy, so they sink to the bottom, but if those seeds are eaten by insects or damaged, they become hollow and light, so they float on the surface of water.

Tools for sowing the seeds
Traditional tools
  • The tool used traditionally for sowing seeds is funnel-shaped. The seeds are filled into the funnel and passed into two or three pipes with sharp ends.
  • these sharpened ends pierced into the soil and placed the seed
Seed drill
  • Nowadays, seed drills are used to place seeds in the soil with the help of trackers.
  • Benefits: This tool sows the seed at a uniform distance and prevents the overcrowding of plants in one place. This also prevents damage caused by birds and saves time and labor.

Adding manures and fertilizers

The addition of manures and fertilizers is a fundamental aspect of agricultural practices that involves providing essential nutrients to crops to promote their growth and increase crop yields. Manures and fertilizers are used to enrich the soil with nutrients, which are crucial for plant development.

Crop production and management class 8
Sprinkling fertilizer to the crop, source: Daily News
  1. Definition: Manures are organic materials derived from the decomposition of plant and animal matter. They are rich in organic matter and provide a slow-release source of essential nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), as well as other micronutrients.
  2. Sources: Manures can be obtained from various sources, including animal dung (e.g., cow dung, poultry litter), crop residues (e.g., straw and leaves), and compost (which is a mixture of decomposed organic matter).
  3. Benefits:
  • Improves soil structure and water-holding capacity.
  • Enhances soil fertility by adding organic matter and nutrients.
  • Increases microbial activity and nutrient cycling in the soil.
  • Reduces soil erosion and suppresses weed growth.
  1. Application: Manures are typically applied by spreading or incorporating them into the soil before or after planting. They can also be used as mulch or top dressing for established crops.
  2. Drawbacks: Manures release nutrients slowly and may not provide an immediate nutrient supply for crops. They can also contain weed seeds or pathogens if not properly composted or treated.
  1. Definition: Fertilizers are synthetic or natural substances that contain specific nutrients (usually in concentrated forms) that are essential for plant growth. The three primary nutrients found in most fertilizers are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K).
  2. Types: Fertilizers are categorized into two main types:
  • Inorganic or chemical fertilizers: These are commercially produced and provide specific nutrient ratios. Examples include urea (for nitrogen), superphosphate (for phosphorus), and potassium chloride (for potassium).
  • Organic or natural fertilizers: These are derived from natural sources like bone meal, fish meal, or rock phosphate. They release nutrients more slowly compared to chemical fertilizers.
  1. Benefits:
  • Provide a quick and concentrated source of essential nutrients.
  • Allow precise nutrient management, enabling farmers to tailor nutrient application to specific crop needs.
  • Can correct nutrient deficiencies and promote high crop yields.
  1. Application: Fertilizers are typically applied either before planting (pre-planting) or during the growing season (side-dressing or top-dressing). The application method depends on the type of fertilizer and the crop’s nutrient requirements.
  2. Drawbacks: Overuse or improper application of fertilizers can lead to nutrient imbalances, environmental pollution, and soil degradation. It’s essential to apply fertilizers judiciously, considering the specific needs of the crops and the soil conditions.


Irrigation is an important agricultural practice that involves the artificial application of water to soil or land to assist in the growth of crops or vegetation when natural sources of water, such as rainfall, are insufficient or irregular. Irrigation is used to ensure a consistent and adequate supply of water to plants, which is essential for their growth and development.

Irrigating the crops
Purpose of Irrigation:
  • Water Supply: The primary purpose of irrigation is to supply water to crops, ensuring that they receive sufficient moisture to support their growth.
  • Drought Mitigation: Irrigation helps mitigate the impact of droughts or periods of insufficient rainfall, reducing the risk of crop failure.
  • Increased Crop Yields: Properly managed irrigation systems can lead to higher crop yields as they provide consistent and optimal moisture levels for plants.
  • Crop Variety and Timing: Irrigation allows for the cultivation of a wider variety of crops and the extension of growing seasons, which can be especially important in regions with distinct wet and dry seasons.
Methods of Irrigation:
  • Surface Irrigation: In this method, water is applied directly to the soil surface and allowed to flow over the field. Common techniques include furrow, basin, and flood irrigation.
  • Drip Irrigation: Drip systems deliver water directly to the root zone of plants through a network of tubes, pipes, and emitters. This method is highly efficient and conserves water.
  • Sprinkler Irrigation: Water is sprayed over the crop in the form of droplets, simulating rainfall. Sprinkler systems are commonly used in agriculture, landscaping, and horticulture.
  • Subsurface Irrigation: This method involves the delivery of water below the soil surface through a network of buried pipes or tubes.
Factors Affecting Irrigation:
  • Soil Type: The type of soil determines its water-holding capacity and drainage characteristics, influencing the choice of irrigation method and water application rates.
  • Crop Type: Different crops have varying water requirements, and the choice of irrigation method should consider these needs.
  • Climate: Local climate, including precipitation patterns and evaporation rates, affects the frequency and amount of irrigation required.
  • Water Source: The source of irrigation water can be surface water (rivers, lakes, and reservoirs) or groundwater (wells and aquifers).
Irrigation Management:
  • Effective irrigation management involves optimizing water use to achieve maximum crop productivity while minimizing waste.
  • Proper scheduling, monitoring, and control of irrigation are essential to prevent overwatering or underwatering, which can lead to waterlogging, soil erosion, or nutrient leaching.
Challenges and Sustainability:
  • Overuse of irrigation can deplete water resources and lead to soil salinization.
  • Sustainable irrigation practices aim to minimize environmental impacts and improve water-use efficiency through techniques like drip irrigation, precision agriculture, and rainwater harvesting.

Protecting from weeds

Protecting crops from weeds is an important aspect of crop management in agriculture. Weeds are unwanted plants that compete with cultivated crops for essential resources such as nutrients, water, sunlight, and space. Effective weed control is essential to ensuring healthy crop growth and maximizing yields. There are various methods and strategies for protecting crops from weeds:

Weeds (visible small plants), source: Oklahoma State University
Cultural Weed Control
  • Crop Rotation: Rotating crops can disrupt the life cycles of weeds, as different crops have different nutrient requirements and growth habits.
  • Planting Density: Planting crops at the recommended density can help shade out weeds and reduce their access to sunlight.
  • Mulching: Applying organic or synthetic mulch materials (e.g., straw, plastic film) around crop plants can prevent weed growth by blocking sunlight and suppressing weed germination.
Mechanical Weed Control
  • Hand Weeding: Manual removal of weeds by hand or using hand tools is effective for small-scale farming but can be labor-intensive.
  • Hoeing and Cultivation: Using hoes, plows, or cultivators to disrupt weed growth and bury weed seeds can be effective for larger fields.
  • Mowing and Tilling: Regular mowing or tilling of fallow fields can help prevent weed growth and reduce seed banks.
Chemical Weed Control (Herbicides)
  • Herbicides: Chemical herbicides are synthetic or natural chemicals that can be applied to selectively control weeds. They should be used following recommended guidelines and with attention to environmental and safety considerations.
  • Pre-emergence Herbicides: These are applied before weed seeds germinate, preventing their growth.
  • Post-emergence herbicides: These are applied after weed seedlings have emerged but are still in their early stages of growth.
Biological Weed Control
  • Bioherbicides: Some naturally occurring organisms, such as certain fungi, insects, and animals, can be used to control weeds. For example, insects like weevils are used to target specific weed species.
  • Allelopathy: Some crops release chemicals that inhibit the growth of weeds, a phenomenon known as allelopathy.
Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
  • IWM combines multiple weed control strategies to create a comprehensive and sustainable approach to weed management. It aims to minimize the development of weed resistance to herbicides and reduce environmental impacts.
Weed Monitoring and Early Detection
  • Regularly monitoring fields for weed growth and addressing the issue early can prevent weed infestations from becoming unmanageable.
Non-Chemical and Organic Farming Practices
  • Organic farming often relies on non-chemical methods for weed control, such as mulching, crop rotation, and cover cropping.
Selective Weed Control
  • Modern technology, such as precision agriculture and herbicide-resistant crop varieties, allows for more selective and targeted weed control.

It’s essential to choose the most appropriate weed control methods based on factors like the type of crop, the scale of farming, available resources, and environmental considerations. Weed management should be integrated into the overall crop production plan to ensure that crops receive the necessary resources and thrive while minimizing the negative impact of weeds.


Harvesting is the process of gathering mature crops from fields or other agricultural areas for subsequent use, whether for human consumption, livestock feed, processing, or storage. Harvesting is a critical step in the agricultural cycle and requires careful timing and handling to ensure the quality and quantity of the crop. Here are some important aspects of harvesting:

harvesting of the crops
Harvesting of Wheat crop, source: Telegraph India

Timing: The timing of the harvest is crucial, as crops must be collected at their peak of maturity to ensure optimal flavor, nutritional content, and yield. Harvesting too early or too late can result in lower quality and reduced yields.

Crop Selection: Different crops have specific indicators of readiness for harvest. For example, in the case of fruits and vegetables, factors such as color, size, and firmness are often used to determine when they are ready to be picked. For grains, harvesting occurs when the crop reaches a specific moisture content and matures.

Harvesting Methods
  • Manual Harvesting: Hand harvesting involves the use of labor to pick or cut crops, especially fruits, vegetables, and some grains. Manual harvesting is precise but labor-intensive.
  • Mechanical Harvesting: Machinery such as combine harvesters, threshers, and pickers are used for large-scale harvesting of grains, cotton, and some fruits. These machines are efficient and can significantly reduce labor requirements.
Handling and Transportation
  • After harvesting, the crops must be handled carefully to avoid bruising, damage, or contamination.
  • Crops are often loaded into containers or bins and transported to a processing facility, market, or storage facility. Refrigeration or other preservation methods may be used for perishable crops.

Post-Harvest Processing: Depending on the crop and its intended use, post-harvest processing may be necessary. This can include cleaning, sorting, washing, drying, grading, and packaging to prepare the crops for sale or storage.

Storage: Crops that are not immediately used or sold may be stored in silos, warehouses, or other storage facilities to preserve their quality and prevent spoilage. Proper storage conditions, such as temperature and humidity control, are essential to prevent deterioration.

Environmental Considerations: Sustainable and environmentally responsible harvesting practices take into account minimizing the impact on the surrounding environment. This includes measures to reduce soil erosion, protect wildlife habitats, and use resources efficiently.

Safety: Harvesting often involves heavy machinery and manual labor, making safety a critical concern. Proper training, safety equipment, and adherence to safety guidelines are essential to preventing accidents.

Sustainability: Sustainable harvesting practices aim to ensure the long-term viability of agricultural systems and prevent overexploitation of natural resources.

Regulations: In some regions, there may be regulations and guidelines governing harvesting practices to ensure food safety, quality standards, and environmental protection.

The specific harvesting process and techniques used can vary widely depending on the type of crop, local climate and conditions, available resources, and the scale of agricultural operations. Successful and efficient harvesting is critical to achieving a good return on investment and providing a consistent supply of food and raw materials to meet the needs of people and industries.


Storage in agriculture refers to the process of preserving and maintaining harvested crops, as well as other agricultural products like seeds, fertilizers, and equipment, to ensure their quality, safety, and availability over time. Proper storage is essential to prevent spoilage, maintain the nutritional value, and manage the supply of agricultural products. Here are some key aspects of agricultural storage:

storage of harvested crops
Storage of harvested crops, source: CivilsDaily
Purpose of Storage
  • Preservation: Storage helps prevent spoilage and deterioration of harvested crops due to factors like moisture, pests, and environmental conditions.
  • Market Timing: Storage allows farmers to time the sale of their products to coincide with favorable market conditions, securing better prices.
  • Seed Storage: Storing seeds under controlled conditions preserves their viability for future planting seasons.
  • Equipment and Inputs: Storage facilities are used for keeping farm equipment, machinery, and agricultural inputs like fertilizers and pesticides in good condition.
Types of Storage Facilities
  • Warehouses: These are dedicated buildings or structures designed for storing large quantities of crops, seeds, or equipment. Warehouses can be equipped with climate control and security measures.
  • Silos: Silos are tall, cylindrical structures used for storing grains and similar crops in bulk. They are designed to prevent moisture and pest infiltration.
  • Cold Storage: Cold storage facilities are used to store perishable products such as fruits, vegetables, and dairy products at low temperatures to extend their shelf life.
  • Root Cellars: Root cellars are typically underground storage facilities used for storing root vegetables, fruits, and other products that benefit from cool, dark, and humid conditions.
  • Grain Bins: Grain bins are a type of storage structure specifically designed for the safe and efficient storage of grains like wheat, corn, and soybeans.
Environmental Control
  • Temperature, humidity, and ventilation are critical factors in maintaining the quality of stored products. Some storage facilities are equipped with environmental control systems to regulate these conditions.
  • Cold storage facilities maintain low temperatures to slow down the ripening and deterioration of fruits and vegetables.
  • Proper ventilation is essential to prevent moisture buildup, which can lead to mold and spoilage.
Pest Control
  • Stored crops are vulnerable to pests like insects and rodents. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies involve using methods such as fumigation, trapping, and sanitation to control and prevent infestations.
  • Hermetic storage methods, such as airtight containers, can be effective in preventing pest damage.
Quality Monitoring
  • Regular monitoring of stored products is important to detect any signs of spoilage, damage, or deterioration. Quality control may involve visual inspection, moisture testing, and other quality assessment techniques.
Inventory Management
  • Efficient record-keeping and inventory management systems help track the quantity and condition of stored products, ensuring timely rotation and use.
Safety Considerations
  • Safety measures are essential to prevent accidents in storage facilities. This includes proper ventilation to prevent the accumulation of toxic gases, fire safety measures, and secure storage of equipment and chemicals.
  • Sustainable storage practices aim to reduce energy consumption and environmental impact by using energy-efficient facilities, renewable energy sources, and recycling or repurposing materials.

Proper agricultural storage is vital for maintaining food security and economic stability, preventing food waste, and supporting the overall agricultural supply chain. The choice of storage methods and facilities depends on the type of agricultural products, local conditions, available resources, and the scale of agricultural operations.

Watch this video for more references:

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are the key factors that affect crop production?

Crop production is influenced by several factors, including soil quality, climate, water availability, choice of crop varieties, pest management, and agricultural practices. Proper management of these factors is crucial for successful crop cultivation.

What is the role of fertilizers in crop production, and how should they be applied?

Fertilizers provide essential nutrients to crops. They should be applied judiciously, considering the nutrient requirements of specific crops. Proper application methods, timing, and dosage are crucial to avoid overuse, which can lead to environmental pollution, and underuse, which can result in low yields.

How can farmers effectively manage pests and diseases in crops without excessive use of chemicals?

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques involve a combination of biological control, crop rotation, natural predators, resistant crop varieties, and cultural practices to manage pests and diseases. Regular monitoring and early intervention are key to preventing extensive damage to crops.

What are sustainable agricultural practices, and how do they contribute to crop production?

Sustainable agricultural practices focus on preserving the environment, conserving natural resources, and ensuring long-term food security. Techniques such as organic farming, crop rotation, agroforestry, and precision agriculture promote soil health, biodiversity, and efficient resource use, leading to enhanced crop production in the long run.

What role does irrigation play in crop production, and what are the different methods of irrigation?

Irrigation provides crops with the necessary water supply, especially in areas with insufficient rainfall. Different irrigation methods, such as drip irrigation, sprinklers, and surface irrigation, ensure consistent and efficient water distribution to crops, promoting healthy growth and higher yields.


Test your knowledge on "Crop production and management" click start button to begin the quiz

Choose the correct option given below the questions and check your score and answers at the end of the quiz.

tail spin Crop production and management

1 / 5

1. What is the term for the practice of turning over and breaking up the soil in preparation for crop cultivation?

2 / 5

2. Which of the following is an organic source of nutrients used to enrich the soil in crop production?

3 / 5

3. What is the primary purpose of irrigation in agriculture?

4 / 5

4. In crop management, what does the term "IPM" stand for?

5 / 5

5. Which sustainable agricultural practice involves the alternating cultivation of different crops in a specific field over successive seasons?

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The average score is 70%


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