# Introduction to the standard Model of Particle Physics

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Today in laws of nature we’re going to discuss about the Standard Model of Particle Physics, this one sounds complicated but apart from the mathematical area we’ll discuss it in a nice compacted way. So let’s start

First of all We all know that a theory is basically a system of ideas or a set of principles used for explaining a particular phenomenon or system or any process. It’s just a framework or model made by us to understand the things and apply them for our need.

## Overview | Standard Model of particle physics

Now, in the whole universe physicists had categorised the all known forces into four types and these are (in no particular order)

•Electromagnetic force

•strong nuclear force

•weak nuclear force

•gravitational force

Out of these four forces three of these excluding gravitational force are explained at a quantum level by a theory named standard model.

So the Standard Model or standard model of Particle Physics is a theory describing the three of the four known fundamental forces and it classifies all known elementary particles.

One of the major goals is Physics is to find the common background for all theories and unite them for a theory of everything and standard model just lacks some concepts including explanations of baryon asymmetry and theory/explanation of gravity and much more.

## Elementary Particles

Everything we see around is made up of ATOMS , or further say made up of electrons protons and neutrons, but of what these are made up of …?

These in turn are made up of subatomic particles and the known forces except gravitation are explained by some particles all these particles collectively are Elementary particles. Elementary particles are Elementary in the sense that they cannot be further divided.

As per standard model the building blocks of matter and forces of universe is thought to be  some  particles and these­ particles are known as elementary particles . that are the building blocks of the universe. Image-Wikipedia

There are a total of 17 elementary particles currently experimentally confirmed.

Broadly elementary particles are classified into two types one are Fermions which constitute to build up all the known matter and bosons which are force carrier particles.

The Quarks and Leptons collectively constitutes the matter.

### Quarks

the are total 6 Quarks named as Up, down, top, bottom, strange and charm.

•Quarks are particles which interacts by strong force and the are the only known particles which Carriec the fractional charges

• But as the Quarks combines in groups of the Quarks or combines in a pair of one quark and one antiquark always only integer charges are observed in nature also known as quantization of charge.

•Quarks independently are short lived and decays in small time they are unstable independently. Hence they found in combinations

• for example an  up quark carries +2/3 times charge of an electron, while a down quark carries -1/3 times charge of an electron, hence when two up Quarks and a down quark combines they constitutes an electron with net charge equals to charge of an electron ( “e” ).

According tot Standard model Below is list of Quarks ### Leptons

•leptons not interacts via strong force

•there are a total of six Leptons 3 of them are charged Leptons and these are called electron like Leptons and the other 3 Leptons are electrically neutral and are called neutrinos.

According to Standard model list of Leptons ### Bosons

Earlier we classified the elementary particles into two types Fermions which constitutes matter and bosons which are thought to be responsible for fundamental forces except gravitational force.

• Bosons are the particles which follows       Bose–Einstein statistics

• Mechanism of force is explained by the exchange of bosons particles.

• the elementary bosons can also combine to form complex bosons.

•there are total 5 elementary bosons out of which 4 are vector bosons and one is scalar boson

• The Higgs boson is the scalar Boson is theorised by the electroweak theory to explain the mass of particles basically about the origin of mass of particles by the mechanism known as the “Higgs mechanism“,

• later on in July 2012 the Higgs boson was experimentally confirmed.

Below the Elementary Bosons as per Standard model 