- 1 THE REVOLT OF 1857: THE BROADER MANIFESTATION OF EMERGING MASS NATIONALISM IN INDIA 🇮🇳
THE REVOLT OF 1857: THE BROADER MANIFESTATION OF EMERGING MASS NATIONALISM IN INDIA 🇮🇳
सिंहासन हिल उठे राजवंशों ने भृकुटी तानी थी,
बूढ़े भारत में आई फिर से नयी जवानी थी,
गुमी हुई आज़ादी की कीमत सबने पहचानी थी,
दूर फिरंगी को करने की सबने मन में ठानी थी।
चमक उठी सन सत्तावन में, वह तलवार पुरानी थी,
बुंदेले हरबोलों के मुँह हमने सुनी कहानी थी,
खूब लड़ी मर्दानी वह तो झाँसी वाली रानी थी।।
– सुभद्रा कुमारी चौहान (भारतीय कवि)
The present article strives to interpret the sociopolitical, administrative, religious and economic reasons of Revolt of 1857. Additionally, we would also underline the results and impacts of this rebellion in India 🇮🇳.
Sociopolitical Reasons for Revolt of 1857:
Policy of Subsidiary Alliance The policy forces Indian rulers to accept and pay a subsidy for the maintenance of the British military. It disallows rulers of India to have independent armies and compel them to cede the part of their territory in case of non- payment of subsidy.
Hastings Claim of Paramountancy: Under this policy, Company exerted its superiority to threaten Indian rulers in order to annex their kingdoms.
Dalhousie Doctrine of Lapse: It states that the company has the right to annex the kingdom if the respective Indian ruler died without a male heir.
- On the pretext of these regressive colonial strategies, numerous regional powers like Satara (1848), Sambalpur( 1850), Udaipur(1852), Nagpur(1853), Jhansi(1854) and Awadh (1856) etc. were confiscated and therefore it created a sense of distrust and skepticism among Indian rulers against Britishers who eventually participated in Revolt of 1857.
- The annexation of Awadh in 1856 on the charge of misgovernment exasperated the masses of the state to participate in Revolt of 1857.
|Signing Dalhousie Doctrine of Lapse|
|Bahadur Shah Zafar|
Administrative and Economic Reasons for Revolt of 1857:
Religion Reasons for Rebellion of 1857:
- Under Charter Act 1813, Christian missionaries were permitted to preach, profess and propagate their religion in India. But later the colonial administrators prompted Indians to convert themselves into Christian.
- They introduced the Religious Disability Act in 1856 that enabled Indians the rights of inheritance over the paternal property if they convert themselves into Christian. Furthermore, they were assigned a special preference for advancement and admission in academic institutions. The inclined religious dynamics gave rise to insecurities in the hearts of Indians who were horrified with the superseding existence of Christianity over Indian religions. These religious practices led to participation of larger mass population in Revolt of 1857.
- In 1856, Lord Canning initiated General Service Enlistment Act that compulsively sent Indian soldiers overseas for foreign deployment. But this was not permitted on the religious ground as Indians believed that crossing sea routes could defile their religion.
- Consequently, it provoked outrage among sepoys but this animosity catalyzed on an amplified scale when they were instructed to use Enfield Rifles that were suspected to be manufactured of cows and pigs fats. It was a distinct attempt to contaminate the religious faith of both Hindus and Muslims who ultimately battled against colonial rule in 1857.
The Genesis of Revolt of 1857:
PLACE AND IMPORTANT LEADERS OF REVOLT OF 1857 🇮🇳🇮🇳
| 1). DELHI – Bahadur Shah II and General Bakht Khan|
2). LUCKNOW – Begum Hazrat Mahal, Birjis Qadir, Ahmadullah
3). KANPUR – Nana Sahib, Rao Sahib, Tantia Tope, Azimullah Khan
4). JHANSI – Rani Laxmibai
5). BIHAR – Kunwar Singh, Amar Singh
6). RAJASTHAN – Jaidayal Singh and Hardayal Singh , Tufzal Hasan Khan
7). ASSAM – Kandapareshwar Singh, Maniram Dutta Baruah
8). ORISSA – Surendra Shahi, Ujjwal Shahi
The Revolt of 1857 had enormously terrorized the Britishers who were trying to stabilize their control over India. The severely emerging rebellion of Indian masses compelled Britishers to take immediate steps to crush down the revolt. In September 1857 Delhi was recaptured and Bahadur Shah Zafar was sentenced to death; and later in October 1857, he was imprisoned in Rangoon jail with his wife Begum Zinat Mahal. Rani Laxmibai chivalrously sacrificed her life fighting against the colonial regime in June 1858 and Tantia Tope was killed in April 1859 to crumble the nationalist ideas in India. The Revolt of 1857 turned into failure but it was a broader manifestation of evolving mass nationalism in India. 🇮🇳
Changes Aftermath Revolt of 1857