Gerund – Definition, Types, and examples

Gerund - Definition, Types, and examples
Gerund – Definition, Types, and examples

What is a Gerund?

A Gerund is a verb form that functions as a noun in a phrase. The word may appear to be a verb, but it doesn’t actually function that way. It is referred to as a non-finite verb and verbal because it cannot be used as an action verb.

The functions of Gerund in a sentence

  1. The subject of a sentence
  2. An object of a sentence
  3. An object of a preposition
  4. Subject compliment
  5. An object of a possessive pronoun

The subject of a sentence

Though the Gerund looks like a verb, it works as a subject in a sentence.

Examples:

  1. Smoking is a bad habit
  2. Drinking water is important to stay fit.
  3. Cooking is an art.
  4. Dancing makes me happy.
  5. Laughing is good for health.

An object of a sentence

Here, the Gerund acts as an object of the sentence.

Examples:

  1. Raju likes drawing all the time.
  2. I don’t like people screaming.
  3. He likes helping others.
  4. She considered resigning.
  5. They love playing.

An object of a preposition

A gerund is an object of the preposition when it comes after one preposition.

Examples:

1) His love for singing is commendable.

Here ‘for’ is a preposition and ‘singing’ is the gerund used. Since the gerund follows a preposition, it is an object of a preposition.

2) He will call us after arriving at the station.

Here, ‘after’ is the preposition, and ‘arriving’ is the gerund used. Since the gerund comes after a preposition, it is an object of a preposition.

3) They gathered for scheduling the party.

Here, ‘for’ is the preposition and ‘scheduling’ is the gerund used. Since the gerund comes after a preposition, it is an object of a preposition.

4) Riyan is unemployed since graduating.

Here, ‘since’ is the preposition, and ‘graduating’ is the gerund used. Since the gerund comes after a preposition, it is an object of a preposition.

5) They will sell the house after receiving money.

Here, ‘after’ is the preposition, and ‘receiving’ is the gerund used. Since the gerund comes after a preposition, it is an object of a preposition.

Subject Compliment

What is a Subject Compliment?

It is a noun or an adjective that either alters or renames the subject. It renames the subject when it is a noun, and it modifies the subject when it is an adjective.

Examples:

  1. My mother’s interest is cooking.
  2. All he wants is passing the exam.
  3. Their favorite writer is arriving.
  4. His ambition in life is becoming a gold medalist.
  5. My baby’s favorite activity is drawing.

An object of a possessive pronoun

The gerund is used as an object of the possessive pronoun used in the sentence.

Examples:

  1. Her singing is very good.
  2. He brought her holding his hand.
  3. He doesn’t like his teaching.
  4. His writing is awful.

Difference between Gerund and Participles

Gerunds and participles vary in that a gerund is a ‘ing’ form of a verb that serves as a noun, whereas a participle is a ‘ing’ form of a verb that either serves as an action verb or an adjective.

Examples:

1) Gerund: Burning in the stomach is dangerous.

Here, ‘Burning’ is used as a noun. Hence it is a gerund.

Participle: He looked at the burning papers.

Here, ‘Burning’ adds meaning to the papers. It acts as an adjective. Hence it is a participle.

2) Gerund: Dancing is good for health.

Here, ‘Dancing’ is used as a noun. Hence it is a gerund.

Participle: He is a dancing star.

Here, ‘dancing’ adds meaning to the noun. It acts as an adjective. Hence it is a participle.

3) Gerund: His writing is very good.

Here, ‘writing’ is used as a noun. Hence it is a gerund.

Participle: He is writing letters

Here, ‘writing’ is used as an action verb. Hence it is a participle.

4) Gerund: He likes her teaching

Here, ‘teaching’ is used as a noun. Hence it is a gerund.

Participle: He is teaching Physics.

Here, ‘teaching’ is used as an action verb. Hence it is a participle.

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