In this article, we are going to derive an expression for potential energy of a system of three points charges. So keep reading till end..
DERIVATION FOR THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF THREE POINTS CHARGES
Let’s consider a system of three points charges , and having position vector , and respectively from the origin as shown in following figure.
If we bring charge first from infinity to position then there is no work done required to do so, it is because when we bring charge from infinity to position then at that position there is no any source which can produce electric field. If there is no electric field then there is no any opposing force. Hence work done is zero.
But when we bring charge from infinity to the position then in this, we have to do work done because, here a opposing field is present due to charge . So we have to do work done in against the electric field produced by the first electric charge .
The work done in bringing charge from infinity to the position is-
Where is the position vector between charge and and V is the electric potential due to charge at position vector .
Now, charges and will produce a electric potential at any point say P. Think that point P denotes the position of charge . The position vector between charge and will be and in between charge and will be .
Now the electric potential due to the charge and at point P is given as-
So the work done in bringing charge from infinity to the position is-
The total work done in assembling the charges at the given location is equal the total potential energy of the system and According to the superposition principle, this total potential energy can be obtained by adding the work done of individual charges.
This result can also be expressed in the form of summation as follows-
If we want to obtain the value of electric potential energy of a system of N point charges then we also obtained it. The value of electric potential energy due to a system of N point charges is equal to the total amount of work done in assembling all the charges to the given position from infinity.
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We know that electrostatic force is conservative in nature, so the value of U is independent of the manner in which the configuration of charge is assembled.
The SI unit of electric potential energy is joule (J) and it’s another unit is electron volt (eV)