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True Discount and Banker's Discount problems tricks in Hindi | fast track formulae for problem solving.

TRUE DISCOUNT AND BANKER'S DISCOUNT TRICKS IN HINDI

TRUE DISCOUNT 1). वास्तविक बट्टा = मिश्रधन - वर्तमान धन
2). यदि ब्याज की दर r% वार्षिक , समय t व वर्तमान धन (pw) है, तो वास्तविक बट्टा = PW×r×t/100
3). यदि r% तथा समय t के बाद देय धन A है, तो तत्काल धन pw = 100×A/(100+r.t)
4). यदि देय धन A पर r% व समय t दिए गए है, तो वास्तविक बट्टा = A.r.t /(100+r.t)
5). यदि किसी निश्चित समय के पश्चात निश्चित वार्षिक दर पर, देय धन पर वास्तविक बट्टा (TD) व समान समय व दर के लिए साधारण ब्याज (SI) हैं, तो देय धन A =      SI × TD/(SI - TD)
6). यदि t समय पश्चात r% वार्षिक दर पर, देय धन पर वास्तविक बट्टा (TD) व साधारण ब्याज (SI) है , तो -  SI - TD = TD×r×t/100
7). t वर्ष बाद r% चक्रवृद्धि दर पर देय धन A का तत्काल धन (PW) = A/(1+r/100)^t   व वास्तविक बट्टा = A - PW
BANKER'S DISCOUNT1). महाजनी बट्टा = शेष समय (समाप्त न हुए समय) के लिए बिल पर ब्याज = बिल की राशि × दर × शेष समय /100
2). महाजनी लाभ = महाजनी बट्टा - वास्तविक बट्टा
3). यदि बिल का मान / अंकित मूल्य A है, समय t व दर r% है, तो महाजनी बट्टा = A×r×t/100
4).…

Emergence of British East India Company as an Imperialist Political Power in India

EMERGENCE OF BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY AS AN IMPERIALIST POLITICAL POWER IN INDIA


Dynamically changing India during early eighteenth century had a substantially growing economy under the authority of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. But after his demise in 1707, several Mughal governors established their control over many regional kingdoms by exerting their authority. By the second half of eighteen century, British East India Company emerged as a political power in India after deposing regional powers and dominating over Mughal rulers. The present article attempts to analyze the reasons for emergence of British East India Company as an imperial political power in India and their diplomatic policies of territorial expansion. In addition to this, I briefly highlighted the Charter Acts (1773, 1793, 1813, 1833 and 1853) to trace its impact on the working process of Company.

Establishment of East India Company in India

Emergence of British East India Company as an Imperialist Political Power in India
Headquarter of East India company

In 1600, British East India Company received royal charter or exclusive license from Queen Elizabeth-l that allowed it monopoly to trade with East. This license enabled the Company to buy goods at lower prices from the East and sell it at higher prices in Europe. But this royal charter could not prohibit other European marketing companies like French, Dutch and Portuguese to enter Eastern markets and purchase goods. Evidently, the prices of pepper, cardamom, cloves and cinnamon increased in Indian markets due to its great demand and the profit margins of the company reduced.
The heightened competition in Eastern markets led to the culmination of intense conflicts between European companies. These trading groups used malpractices (like- blocking routes and sinking competitor’s ship) to secure their market. 
In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe granted permission from Mughal emperor Jahangir for establishing a factory at Surat. Eventually, the first English factory was constructed in Surat on the bank of Hugli in 1651. During that time, the main objective of the company is to maximize profits for themselves and henceforth they constantly attempted to diminish competition. By 1696, the company functioned to fortify settlement around factory for protection of trading posts.
The company persuaded Aurangzeb to issue farman granting them the right to trade duty free which it misused by the company as an instrument to gain extra profit. Consequently, Bengal experienced a severe loss of revenue in early eighteenth century and Nawab of Bengal Murshid Quli Khan vehemently protested against it.

Foundation of British Empire in India 

Emergence of British East India Company as an Imperialist Political Power in India

The intense dispute continued for long time and the Company started to interfere in political affairs of Bengal. Nawab Murshid Quli Khan was followed by Alivardi Khan and after his death in 1756, Sirajuddaulah became the Nawab of Bengal. Exasperated by company's deceit, Sirajuddaulah marched on English factory of Kassimbazzar and established its power over company’s fort. 
On 2 January, 1757, Treaty of Alinagar was signed that forced Nawab to restore company rights. It approved British to fortify at Calcutta for defence reasons. 
The pre-existing conflicts and Treaty of Alinagar led to Battle of Plassey, 1757 which was won by British East India Company due to the conspiracy of Mir Zafar. Sirajuddaulah was defeated and assassinated after Battle of Plassey and Mir Zafar became the Nawab of Bengal. 
Clearly, the Battle of Plassey laid foundation of British Empire in India.
The company required more finance and revenue to meet the needs of business and expenditures. Even the puppet nawabs couldn’t help much. As a result of which when Mir Zafar argued, he was deposed and Mir Qasim was launched. Mir Zafar was re-launched when Mir Qasim protested.


Battle of Plassey was followed by another pitching Battle of Buxar, 1764. It was fought between British East India Company ( headed by Commander in Chief- Major Munro) and Mughal Emperor- Shah Alam, Nawab of Bengal Mir Qasim and Nawab of Awadh Shujauddaulah. The victory of EIC in this battle made them to attain political power on North India. The British  East India Company achieved Diwani rights in 1765 under “Treaty of Allahabad”.
The victory in Battle of Buxar entirely changed the fortune of EIC in India. The revenue collected from India was used to finance Company business and purchase cotton and silk textile in India without any outflow of gold from Britain. But interestingly, EIC established themselves as an imperialist political power after Battle of Buxar.

Territorial Expansion with Military Attack-

Emergence of British East India Company as an Imperialist Political Power in India

Anglo- Mysore Wars- By the second half of eighteenth century, Mysore had solidified itself as a powerful political power under the leadership of Haider Ali (1761-1782) and Tipu Sultan (1782-1799). Threatened by modernisation of Mysore with help of French, Company directly resorted to military attack and led to four famous Anglo- Mysore Wars.

  • 1. Anglo- Mysore War-I (1767-1769)- The war was fought between British East India Company (accompanied with Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad) and Haider Ali, the ruler of Mysore. It ended with the victory of Haider Ali ( first Indian ruler who defeated Britisher).
  •  “Treaty of Madras” was signed on 4 April, 1769 under which all conquered territories were restored. Both groups agreed to help each other in case of foreign attack.
  • CHARTER ACT/ REGULATING ACT 1773 WAS INTRODUCED. Chronologically, First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-1782) was also going on.( detailed in next section)
  • 2.Anglo- Mysore War-II (1780-1784)- When EIC disregarded the Treaty of Madras during the attack of Marathas on Mysore, the second war started. One of the reason was that EIC attacked on Mahe, French dominion of Haider Ali. The war was fought between English (Warren Hastings) and Haider Ali (accompanied with Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad). In this terrifying war, Haider Ali died in 1782 and Tipu Sultan (also called Tiger of Mysore) continued it. 
  • Emergence of British East India Company as an Imperialist Political Power in India
  • Treaty of Mangalore was signed in 1784 under which all captured territories and prisoners were liberated.
  • 3.Anglo-Mysore War- III (1790-1792)- Tipu Sultan violated Treaty of Mangalore and refused to free prisoners. Consequently, the third war started between English Lord Cornwallis ( accompanied with Maratha and Nizam of Hyderabad) and Tipu Sultan. With the defeat of Tipu, Treaty of Seringapatnam 1792 was signed under which half Mysore was seized. Both sons on Tipu were taken to hostages and Rs. 3 crore was given as war indemnity.
  • CHARTER ACT 1793 WAS INTRODUCED.
  • 4.Anglo Mysore War- IV ( 1799): Tipu Sultan disobeyed Treaty of Seringapatnam and final Anglo Mysore war climaxed with annexation of Mysore. Tipu Sultan died while defending his territory Seringapatnam but at the end, policy of Subsidiary Alliance was imposed.( discussed in next section).    

  • Anglo-Maratha Wars-After the defeat of Third Battle of Panipat(1761), Maratha power almost crushed and it resulted into the demise of Peshwa Bajirao in same year. Madhavarao succeeded him but after his death in 1772,  Narainrao became Peshwa that sowed seeds of envy in heart of Ragunathrao who ultimately seeked help from EIC.
  • It is interesting to note that Maratha power was subdivided into various states- Sindhia, Holker, Gaikwad and Bhonsle who were held under common Peshwa headed in Pune.
  • 1. Anglo-Maratha War-I- (1775-1782)-The war was fought between English ( Governor-General Warren Hastings) and Maratha( Head- Mahaji Sindhia). British Army lost and Treaty of Wadgaon 1779 was signed under which British govt. got hold of all conquered territories. Later, Treaty of Salbai 1782 was signed under which 20 years of was established between two.
  • 2. Anglo-Maratha War-II (1803-1805)-When Sindhia and Bhonsle disregarded the Treaty of Baseein 1802 (between Bajirao and British), second war initiated between English (Lord Wellesley) and Maratha(Bajirao-II). It ended into three major treaties- I) Treaty of Deogaon 1803- EIC imposed the policy of subsidiary alliance and provinces of Cuttack, Bals and west of Warda river was given to British and ;ii) Treaty of Surji-Arjunagaon 1803- led to confiscation of Bundelkhand and territories between Ganga and Yamuna.iii) Treaty of Barhanpur- The policy of subsidiary alliance was accepted by Sindias but Holkars protested.
  • CHARTER ACT 1813 WAS INTRODUCED.
  • 3. Anglo- Maratha War-III (1817-1818) Fought between English (Lord Hastings) and Bajirao-II led to establishment of supremacy of East India Company in India. Maratha power devastated after the war and Treaty of Mandasor(1818) was signed under which Peshwa was dethroned and Rs. 18 lacs were annually pensioned to him.
  • CHARTER ACT 1833 WAS INTRODUCED.
Company's Policies of Territorial Expansion 
Emergence of British East India Company as an Imperialist Political Power in India

Instead of direct military invasion, EIC used political, diplomatic techniques for territorial expansion. For instance- “Policy of Subsidiary Alliance”by Lord Wellesley- the policy tends Indian rulers to accept and pay a subsidy for the maintenance of British military. It disallows  rulers of India to have independent armies and force them to cede the part of their territory in case of non- payment of subsidy. Awadh( after Battle of Buxar), Mysore (after Anglo-Mysore War-IV), Bombay(after Anglo-Maratha War-IV) and Hyderabad were annexed on the grounds of this policy.
The another such policy was Lord Hastings Claim to Paramountancy.  Under this policy, Company exterted its superiority to threaten Indian rulers in order to annex their kingdoms. This policy led to the annexation of Sind( 1843) and Punjab (1849).
Out of such diplomatic political techniques, the most famous was Dalhousie Doctrine of Lapse. It states that the company has the right to annex the kingdom if the respective Indian ruler died without a male heir. Applying this technique, EIC annexed Satara (1848), Sambalpur( 1850), Udaipur(1852), Nagpur(1853), Jhansi( 1854) and Awadh (1856).
Emergence of British East India Company as an Imperialist Political Power in India

Hence, EIC metamorphosed from a trading group to an imperialist political power in India. It laid its foundation with the Battle of Plassey 1757 and thereafter the Company asserted either direct military attack or several political techniques( Policy of Subsidiary Alliance) for its constant expansion of the territorial region. 

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